CoverI. Intellectual Property1. James Boyle, “The Why of Intellectual Property”2. James Boyle, “Thomas Jefferson Writes a Letter”II. Free Software3. Richard Stallman, “What is Free Software?”4. Richard Stallman, “The GNU Project”III. Open Source5. Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar”6. Eric Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”IV. Open Content7. David Wiley, “About the Open Publication License”8. David Wiley, “Open Content: The First Decade”V. Defining Free9. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “The Four Freedoms Speech”10. Richard Stallman, “Four Freedoms”11. Erik Moller, “Freedom Defined”12. Bruce Perens, “Debian Free Software Guidelines”VI. Defining Open13. Bruce Perens, “The Open Source Definition”14. David Wiley, “Open Content”15. OKFN, “Open Definition”16. David Wiley, “The Access Compromise and the 5th R”17. David Wiley, “Open Definitions, Specificity, and Avoiding Bright Lines”VII. Open Source Software Licenses18. GNU General Public License19. BSD License20. MIT License21. Apache License22. Comparison of Open Source LicensesVIII. Open Content Licenses23. Creative Commons Licenses24. GNU Free Documentation License25. Open Publication LicenseIX. Open CourseWare26. Charles Vest, “Disturbing the Educational Universe: Universities in the Digital Age — Dinosaurs or Prometheans?”27. History of MIT OCW28. MIT OCW Evaluation Report (2005)29. MIT Reaches OCW Milestone30. David Wiley, “OpenCourseWars”X. Open Educational Resources31. UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing32. Cape Town Open Education Declaration33. UNESCO, “2012 Paris OER Declaration”34. Wiley, Bliss, and McEwen, “Open Educational Resources: OER Literature Review”35. Boston Consulting Group, “Open Educational Resources: The OER Ecosystem”XI. Open Textbooks36. Nicole Allen, “Open Textbooks: A Cover to Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Affordability”37. Frydenberg and Matkin, “Open Textbooks: Why? What? How? When?”XII. Research in Open Education38. OER Research Hub39. Open Education Group40. Marshall Smith, “Ruminations on Research on OER”XIII. The Economics of Open41. Yochai Benkler, “Coases Penguin, or Linux and The Nature of the Firm”42. Yochai Benkler, “Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials”43. Yochai Benkler, “‘Sharing Nicely’: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production”XIV. Open Business Models44. Eric Raymond, “The Magic Cauldron”45. OSI, “Open Source Case for Business”46. Various, “A Summer 2014 Conversation on Business Models in Open Education”

Wiley, Bliss, and McEwen, “Open Educational Resources: OER Literature Review”

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The authors provide a thorough review of the existing literature on open educational resources in 2012. This “State of OER review” reports on a variety of OER definitions over the past fifteen years, reviews production models of OER and touts its benefits. Perhaps the most historically significant section is the Challenges of OER, where the authors unpack five sweeping issues: discovery, sustainability, quality, localization, and remix. The article concludes that these obstacles must be overcome if OER is going to fulfill its potential.

Key Points

The definition of open is well-traveled for a term still in its initiatory stages.

  1. Wiley (2010) – Open is a matter of cost and copyright – 4 (now 5) Rs.
  2. Wenk (2010) – Open means the freedom to use, study, redistribute and change.
  3. Patrical, del Rocio & Elizabeth (2010) – Open means having the term “open license” in the definition.
  4. Tuomi (2006) – Open means having levels of openness in the definition.
  5. In practice open refers to things under the Creative Commons license

OER Research indicates that there are multiple models of sharing and producing OER, in addition to multiple benefits and almost as many challenges to the implement of OER.

The future of OER looks promising as more nations are joining the OER effort. There are also some gaps that need to be filled in open assessment, a wide open frontier that needs to be explored.

Discussion Questions

  1. Should open assessment be in its own repository or in a package with resources? Why?
  2. What is the best way to remove barriers to OER?
  3. What are three things you can do today to inspire someone to use OER?

Additional Resources

OER Commons